Study explorer (study characteristics and results) method abbreviations pdf   xlsx

display ongoing studies
Study Ref. studied treatmentcontrol treatmentpatientsstudy risk of biassample sizes Results

COVID 19 hospitalized meta-analysis

RCT-TCZ-COVID-19, 2021
 
NCT04346355
RCTtocilizumab standard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
60/66 inconclusive
    RECOVERY (plasma), 2021
     
    NCT04381936
    RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
    -/- inconclusive
      Abd-Elsalam, 2020
       
      NCT04353336
      RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
      97/97 inconclusive
        ACTIV-3/TICO LY-CoV555 , 2020
         
        NCT04501978
        RCTneutralizing antibodyplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedlow
        163/151 inconclusive
        • inconclusive 6 % increase in time to recovery (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
        ACTT-2 (Kalil), 2020
         
        NCT04401579
        RCTbaricitinib plus remdesivirremdesivirCOVID 19 hospitalizedlow
        515/518 conclusif
        • demonstrated 16 % increase in clinical improvement,time to recovery (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
        • suggested 31 % decrease in death or ventilation with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
        ARCHAIC -hydroxychloroquine, 2020
         
        NL8490
        RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
        9/6 inconclusive
          Balcells, 2020
           
          NCT04375098
          RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentconvalescent plasma treatmentCOVID 19 hospitalizedlow
          28/30 inconclusive
          • inconclusive 33 % decrease in death or ventilation (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
          BRACE CORONA, 2020 RCTdiscontinuation of ACEI/ARBcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
          334/325 inconclusive
            CCAP-1, 2020
             
            NCT04345289
            RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
            -/- inconclusive
              Chen, 2020
               
              NCT04384380
              RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
              21/12 inconclusive
                ConPlas-19, 2020
                 
                NCT04345523
                RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                38/43 inconclusive
                  Duke university HCQ, 2020
                   
                  NCT04335552
                  RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                  4/2 no results
                    discontinued, found in Axfors et al. meta-analysis
                    Duke university HCQ-AZI, 2020
                     
                    NCT04335552
                    RCThydroxychloroquine plus macrolidesstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                    -/- inconclusive
                      Elgazzar - treatment, 2020 RCTivermectinhydroxychloroquineCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
                      200/200 suggested
                      • suggested 93 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                      Entrenas (Pilot Calcifediol), 2020
                       
                      NCT04366908
                      RCTVitamin Dstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      50/26 conclusif
                      • inconclusive 88 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      • demonstrated 97 % decrease in ICU admission (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      Gharbharan et al., 2020
                       
                      NCT04342182
                      RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      43/43 inconclusive
                      • inconclusive 5 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      GLUCOCOVID, 2020 RCTcorticosteroidscontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
                      34/29 suggested
                      • suggested 45 % decrease in clinical deterioration but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                      GRECCO-19, 2020
                       
                      NCT04326790
                      RCTcolchicinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      55/50 suggested
                      • suggested 89 % decrease in clinical deterioration with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      HAHPS, 2020
                       
                      NCT04329832
                      RCThydroxychloroquineazithromycinCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      42/43 inconclusive
                      • inconclusive 7 % increase in clinical deterioration (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      Hashim A, 2020
                       
                      NCT04591600
                      RCTivermectinstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      70/70 inconclusive
                      • inconclusive 52 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      Hashim A, 2020
                       
                      NCT04591600
                      RCTdoxycyclinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      70/70 inconclusive
                      • inconclusive 52 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                      Huang, 2020
                       
                      ChiCTR2000029542
                      RCTchloroquinelopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                      10/12 inconclusive
                        HYCOVID, 2020
                         
                        NCT04325893
                        RCThydroxychloroquineplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                        124/123 inconclusive
                        • inconclusive 12 % increase in death or ventilation (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                        Metcovid, 2020
                         
                        NCT04343729
                        RCTmethylprednisoloneplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                        209/207 inconclusive
                        • inconclusive 8 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                        NO COVID-19 (Lyngbakken), 2020
                         
                        NCT04316377
                        RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                        27/26 inconclusive
                          Nojomi, 2020
                           
                          IRCT20180725040596N2
                          RCTumifenovir (arbidol)lopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                          50/50 inconclusive
                            Nojomi, 2020
                             
                            IRCT20180725040596N2
                            RCTlopinavir/ritonavirumifenovir (arbidol)COVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                            50/50 inconclusive
                              OAHU-COVID19, 2020
                               
                              NCT04345692
                              RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                              10/6 inconclusive
                                ORCHID, 2020
                                 
                                NCT04332991
                                RCThydroxychloroquineplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedlow
                                242/237 inconclusive
                                • inconclusive 2 % increase in clinical improvement (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
                                PROTECT B, 2020
                                 
                                NCT04338698
                                RCToseltamiviroseltamivirCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                -/- inconclusive
                                  PROTECT B, 2020
                                   
                                  NCT04338698
                                  RCThydroxychloroquineoseltamivirCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                  -/- inconclusive
                                    RECOVERY, 2020
                                     
                                    NCT04381936
                                    RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                    1561/3155 safety concern
                                    • inconclusive 9 % increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                    • statistically significant 14 % increase in death or ventilation with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                    RECOVERY, 2020
                                     
                                    NCT04381936
                                    RCTlopinavir/ritonavirstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                    1616/3424 inconclusive
                                    • inconclusive 3 % increase in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                    the trial Steering Committee concluded that there is no beneficial effect of lopinavir-ritonavir in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and closed randomisation to that treatment arm
                                    RECOVERY dexamethasone, 2020
                                     
                                    NCT04381936
                                    RCTdexamethasonestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                    2104/4321 conclusif
                                    • demonstrated 17 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                    • suggested 10 % increase in hospital discharge with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                    in an exploratory subgroup analysis there was no benefit among patients who did not require oxygen (1.22 [0.86 to 1.75]; p=0.14)
                                    RECOVERY-AZI (Horby), 2020
                                     
                                    NCT04381936
                                    RCTazithromycinstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                    2582/5182 inconclusive
                                    • inconclusive 0 % increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                    Preliminary findings based on a data cut on 30 November. Final results will be made available after the last patient has completed the 28-day follow-up period for the primary outcome on 25 December 2020
                                    REPLACE, 2020
                                     
                                    NCT04338009
                                    RCTRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                    77/75 inconclusive
                                      Salehzadeh, 2020
                                       
                                      IRCT20200418047126N1
                                      RCTcolchicineplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                      50/50 inconclusive
                                        Comparing two groups showed significantly different only in the duration of hospitalized (P<0.05). Although in colchicine group dyspnea was improved more rapid than the placebo group, but it was not meaningful.
                                        Sekhavati, 2020 RCTlopinavir/ritonavirlopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        56/55 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 51 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        Sekhavati, 2020 RCTlopinavir/ritonavirhydroxychloroquineCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        56/55 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 51 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        Sekhavati, 2020 RCTazithromycinlopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        56/55 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 51 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        Sekhavati, 2020 RCTazithromycinhydroxychloroquineCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        56/55 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 51 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        Sekhavati, 2020 RCThydroxychloroquinelopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        56/55 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 51 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        Sekhavati, 2020 RCThydroxychloroquinehydroxychloroquineCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        56/55 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 51 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        SOLIDARITY (interferon), 2020
                                         
                                        NCT04315948
                                        RCTinterferoncontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        2063/2064 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 16 % increase in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        SOLIDARITY (lopi/rito), 2020
                                         
                                        NCT04315948
                                        RCTlopinavir/ritonavirstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        1399/1372 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 0 % increase in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        SOLIDARITY (remdesivir), 2020
                                         
                                        NCT04315948
                                        RCTremdesivircontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        2750/2725 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 5 % decrease in deaths (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        SOLIDARITY (WHO study) HCQ, 2020
                                         
                                        NCT04315948
                                        RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                        947/906 inconclusive
                                        • inconclusive 19 % increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                        Synairgen SG016, 2020
                                         
                                        NCT04385095
                                        RCTSNG001 inhaled interferon betaplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
                                        50/51 suggested
                                        • suggested 1.3-fold increase in clinical improvement but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                        Tang, 2020
                                         
                                        ChiCTR2000029868
                                        RCTchloroquine and derivativesstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
                                        75/75 inconclusive
                                          Tang, 2020
                                           
                                          ChiCTR2000029868
                                          RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
                                          75/75 safety concern
                                          • statistically significant 3.5-fold increase in adverse events but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                          TEACH, 2020
                                           
                                          NCT04369742
                                          RCThydroxychloroquineplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
                                          67/61 inconclusive
                                          • inconclusive 80 % increase in clinical deterioration (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                          • inconclusive 16 % increase in adverse events (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                          Bruce, 2020 OBSnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugscontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                          54/1168 inconclusive
                                          • inconclusive 11 % decrease in deaths (time to event analysis only) (PE)
                                          Rodriguez-Molinero, 2020 OBSazithromycinCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                          -/- ongoing
                                            Our study did not find a benefit associated with the use of azithromycin in terms of respiratory function (SAFI)
                                            Rodriguez-Molinero, 2020 OBSazithromycincontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                            -/- inconclusive
                                              Our study did not find a benefit associated with the use of azithromycin in terms of respiratory function (SAFI)
                                              Wenxin, 2020
                                               
                                              ChiCTR2000031630.
                                              OBSCelecoxibcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                              36/7 suggested
                                              • suggested 92 % decrease in clinical deterioration
                                              • suggested 11.8-fold increase in clinical improvement
                                              concentrations of PGE2 in urine samples of COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than that of healthy individuals (mean value is 170 ng/ml vs 18.8 ng/ml, p<0.01) and positively correlated with the progression of COVID-19.
                                              Abolghasemi, 2020
                                               
                                              IRCT20200325046860N1
                                              OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                              115/74 inconclusive
                                                Annweiler (GERIA-COVID; regular intake of bolus vitamin D), 2020 OBSVitamin DcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                29/32 suggested
                                                • suggested 93 % decrease in deaths (PE)
                                                • suggested 92 % decrease in death or ventilation
                                                Annweiler (GERIA-COVID; Vitamin D Supplementation After COVID-19 Diagnosis), 2020 OBSVitamin DcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                16/32 inconclusive
                                                  Argenziano, 2020 OBSproton pump inhibitors (PPI)controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                  163/837 inconclusive
                                                    Arshad (HCQ AZ), 2020 OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                    783/409 suggested
                                                    • suggested 71 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                    Arshad (HCQ), 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                    1202/409 suggested
                                                    • suggested 66 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                    Belgian Collaborative Group on COVID-19, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                    4542/3533 suggested
                                                    • suggested 32 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                    Bousquet, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                    -/- inconclusive
                                                      Bousquet, 2020 OBSanticoagulant, prophylactic dosecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                      -/- suggested
                                                      • suggested 57 % decrease in deaths
                                                      Bousquet, 2020 OBSanticoagulant, prophylactic doseanticoagulant, curative doseCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                      -/- inconclusive
                                                        Bousquet, 2020 OBSanticoagulant, curative dosecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                        -/- suggested
                                                        • suggested 62 % decrease in deaths
                                                        Chen, 2020 OBSlopinavir/ritonavircontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                        163/121 inconclusive
                                                          Chen, 2020 OBSumifenovir (arbidol)controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                          163/121 inconclusive
                                                            Chen, 2020 OBSoseltamivircontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                            163/121 inconclusive
                                                              Chen, 2020 OBSchloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                              163/121 inconclusive
                                                                Chen, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                163/121 safety concern
                                                                • statistically significant 51 % decrease in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                Colaneri, 2020 OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                21/21 inconclusive
                                                                  Davido, 2020
                                                                   
                                                                  NCT04453501
                                                                  OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                  52/40 suggested
                                                                  • suggested 55 % decrease in death or transfer to ICU but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                  Fernández Cruz, 2020 OBScorticosteroidsstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                  396/67 suggested
                                                                  • suggested 66 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                  Geleris, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                  811/565 inconclusive
                                                                    HNF Hospital Tocilizumab multidisciplinary team, 2020 OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                    20/25 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 87 % decrease in death or transfer to ICU but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    Huang, 2020 OBSchloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                    197/176 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 5.1-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion (14-day) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    ICON, 2020 OBSivermectinstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                                    173/107 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 53 % decrease in deaths (PE)
                                                                    Lagier, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                    3119/618 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 51 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    • suggested 70 % decrease in clinical deterioration but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    • suggested 62 % decrease in hospitalization but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    Magagnoli (HC), 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                    97/158 safety concern
                                                                    • safety concern with statistically significant 1.6-fold increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only)
                                                                    Malgorzata, 2020 OBSanti-inflammatory therapiescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                    130/66 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 59 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    Martinez-Sanz, 2020 OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                    260/969 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 66 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    Novales, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                    123/43 suggested
                                                                    • suggested 93 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                    Paccoud, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                    38/46 inconclusive
                                                                      Paranjpe, 2020 OBSanticoagulantcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                      786/1987 no results
                                                                        the primary result seems inconclusive (no p value given, but in-hospital mortality for AC was 22.5% with a median survival of 21 days, compared to 22.8% and median survival of 14 days in control group)
                                                                        Ramachandran, 2020 OBSproton pump inhibitors (PPI)controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                                        46/249 safety concern
                                                                        • statistically significant 1.3-fold increase in deaths (PE)
                                                                        • statistically significant 1.5-fold increase in ventilation (PE)
                                                                        Rosenberg, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                        -/- safety concern
                                                                        • safety concern with statistically significant 1.1-fold increase in cardiac arrest
                                                                        • statistically significant 1.2-fold increase in arrhythmia but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                        Rosenberg, 2020 OBSazithromycincontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                        -/- inconclusive
                                                                          Rosenberg, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                          -/- safety concern
                                                                          • safety concern with 91 % increase in cardiac arrest (not statistically significant)
                                                                          Sbidian (HCQ alone), 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                          623/3792 safety concern
                                                                          • statistically significant 25 % increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                          Sbidian (HCQ plus AZI), 2020 OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                          227/3792 inconclusive
                                                                            Singh, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                            -/- inconclusive
                                                                              Singh, 2020 OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
                                                                              -/- inconclusive
                                                                                Tsai, 2020 OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
                                                                                66/66 inconclusive
                                                                                  Zhang, 2020 OBSproton pump inhibitors (PPI)controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                                                  29/29 no results
                                                                                    No death in the proton pump inhibitor group.
                                                                                    Jeong, 2020 OBSnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugscontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
                                                                                    354/1470 safety concern
                                                                                    • statistically significant 65 % increase in clinical deterioration (PE)
                                                                                    • statistically significant 87 % increase in cardiovascular or renal events

                                                                                    COVID 19 all comers meta-analysis

                                                                                    Chang Chen et al., 2020
                                                                                     
                                                                                    ChiCTR2000030254
                                                                                    RCTfavipiravir umifenovir (arbidol)COVID 19 all comerssome concern
                                                                                    120/120 inconclusive
                                                                                      ChiCTR2000030054-HCQ (Chen), 2020
                                                                                       
                                                                                      ChiCTR2000030054
                                                                                      RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 all comershigh
                                                                                      18/12 inconclusive
                                                                                        ELACOI (Standard of care), 2020
                                                                                         
                                                                                        NCT04252885
                                                                                        RCTumifenovir (arbidol)standard of careCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
                                                                                        16/7 inconclusive
                                                                                          jRCTs041190120, 2020
                                                                                           
                                                                                          jRCTs041190120
                                                                                          RCTfavipiravir favipiravir COVID 19 all comershigh
                                                                                          44/45 inconclusive
                                                                                          • inconclusive 42 % increase in PCR-negative conversion,PCR-negative conversion (time to event analysis only) (PE) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                          Lou Y, 2020
                                                                                           
                                                                                          ChiCTR2000029544
                                                                                          RCTbaloxavir marboxilstandard of careCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
                                                                                          10/10 inconclusive
                                                                                          • inconclusive 88 % decrease in PCR-negative conversion (14-day) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                          Lou Y - FAVIPIRAVIR, 2020
                                                                                           
                                                                                          ChiCTR2000029544
                                                                                          RCTfavipiravir standard of careCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
                                                                                          10/10 inconclusive
                                                                                          • inconclusive 82 % decrease in PCR-negative conversion,PCR-negative conversion (14-day) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                          NCT04310228-FAVI (Zhao), 2020
                                                                                           
                                                                                          ChiCTR2000030894
                                                                                          RCTfavipiravir tocilizumab COVID 19 all comerssome concern
                                                                                          -/- inconclusive
                                                                                          • inconclusive 68 % decrease in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (14-day),clinical improvement (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                          NIH NIAID ACTT-1, 2020
                                                                                           
                                                                                          NCT04280705
                                                                                          RCTremdesivirplaceboCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
                                                                                          538/521 suggested
                                                                                          • suggested 32 % increase in clinical improvement (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                          sarilumab phase 2 high dose unpublished
                                                                                           
                                                                                          NCT04315298
                                                                                          RCTsarilumab high dose (400mg)placeboCOVID 19 all comershigh
                                                                                          145/77 suggested
                                                                                          • suggested 61 % decrease in death or ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                          • suggested 73 % decrease in ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                          there were negative trends for most outcomes in the “severe” group, while there were positive trends for all outcomes in the “critical” group
                                                                                          sarimulab phase 2 low dose unpublished
                                                                                           
                                                                                          NCT04315298
                                                                                          RCTsarilumab low dose (200mg)placeboCOVID 19 all comershigh
                                                                                          136/77 suggested
                                                                                          • suggested 72 % decrease in ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                          there were negative trends for most outcomes in the “severe” group, while there were positive trends for all outcomes in the “critical” group
                                                                                          Calik, 2020 OBSfavipiravir hydroxychloroquineCOVID 19 all comerscritical
                                                                                          -/- no results
                                                                                            Li, 2020 OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comerscritical
                                                                                            -/- inconclusive
                                                                                              Magagnoli (HC AZ), 2020 OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
                                                                                              113/158 inconclusive
                                                                                                Meng, 2020 OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comerscritical
                                                                                                17/25 inconclusive
                                                                                                  Yang, 2020 OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
                                                                                                  43/83 inconclusive
                                                                                                    Zhang, 2020 OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
                                                                                                    188/940 suggested
                                                                                                    • suggested 63 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                                    Bean, 2020 OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
                                                                                                    37/168 suggested
                                                                                                    • suggested 71 % decrease in death or transfer to ICU but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                                    Yan et al., 2020 OBScorticosteroidscontrolCOVID 19 all comerscritical
                                                                                                    -/- safety concern
                                                                                                    • statistically significant 6.6-fold increase in clinical deterioration but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
                                                                                                    Yan et al., 2020 OBSangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)controlCOVID 19 all comerscritical
                                                                                                    -/- inconclusive
                                                                                                      Yan et al., 2020 OBSangiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)controlCOVID 19 all comerscritical
                                                                                                      -/- inconclusive
                                                                                                        Cai -FAVIPIRAVIR, 2020
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                        ChiCTR2000029600
                                                                                                        NRafavipiravir lopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 all comersNA
                                                                                                        35/45 suggested
                                                                                                        • suggested 5.5-fold increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (14-day)
                                                                                                        Cai -FAVIPIRAVIR, 2020
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                        ChiCTR2000029600
                                                                                                        NRafavipiravir interferonCOVID 19 all comersNA
                                                                                                        35/45 suggested
                                                                                                        • suggested 5.5-fold increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (14-day)
                                                                                                        Cai -FAVIPIRAVIR, 2020
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                        ChiCTR2000029600
                                                                                                        NRainterferonlopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 all comersNA
                                                                                                        35/45 suggested
                                                                                                        • suggested 5.5-fold increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (14-day)
                                                                                                        Cai -FAVIPIRAVIR, 2020
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                        ChiCTR2000029600
                                                                                                        NRainterferoninterferonCOVID 19 all comersNA
                                                                                                        35/45 suggested
                                                                                                        • suggested 5.5-fold increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (14-day)
                                                                                                        Gautret et al., 2020 NRahydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
                                                                                                        20/16 suggested
                                                                                                        • suggested 15.3-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion (PE) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                                        a viral load reduction/disappearance is claimed but the numerous methological limits preclude any strong conclusion

                                                                                                        COVID-19 mild to moderate meta-analysis

                                                                                                        CORIMUNO-ANA-1, 2021
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                        NCT04341584
                                                                                                        RCTanakinracontrolCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                        59/57 inconclusive
                                                                                                          Ahmed, 2020 RCTivermectinplaceboCOVID-19 mild to moderatehigh
                                                                                                          48/24 suggested
                                                                                                          • suggested 3.1-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion (time to event analysis only),PCR-negative conversion (14-day) (PE) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                                          Paradoxically comparison of day 7 and 14 virological clearance between ivermectin doxycycline group vs placebo was not statistically significant (HR 2.3[0.6-9.0] and 1.7[0.8-4.0])
                                                                                                          AVIFAVIR, 2020
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                          NCT04434248
                                                                                                          RCTfavipiravir standard of careCOVID 19 hospitalized, COVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                          20/20 suggested
                                                                                                          • suggested 2.9-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion,PCR-negative conversion (7-day) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                          Adverse drug reactions to AVIFAVIR were reported in 7/40 (17.5%) patients, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, chest pain and an increase in liver transaminase levels. The adverse drug reactions were mild to moderate and caused early discontinuation of the study drug in 2/40 (5.0%) patients.
                                                                                                          Chaccour, 2020
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                          NCT04390022
                                                                                                          RCTivermectinplaceboCOVID 19 outpatients, COVID-19 mild to moderatelow
                                                                                                          12/12 inconclusive
                                                                                                          • inconclusive 8 % decrease in PCR-negative conversion,PCR-negative conversion (7-day) (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
                                                                                                          Chachar, 2020 RCTivermectinstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                          25/25 inconclusive
                                                                                                          • inconclusive 19 % increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (7-day) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                          Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I (Cavalcanti) - HCQ AZI, 2020
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                          NCT04322123
                                                                                                          RCThydroxychloroquine plus macrolidesstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                          217/227 safety concern
                                                                                                          • inconclusive 1 % decrease in clinical deterioration (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                          • statistically significant 8.8-fold increase in long QT with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                          Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I (Cavalcanti)-Hydroxychloroquine, 2020
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                          NCT04322123
                                                                                                          RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                          221/227 safety concern
                                                                                                          • statistically significant 74 % increase in adverse events with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                          CORIMUNO-19, 2020
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                          NCT04331808
                                                                                                          RCTtocilizumab standard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                          64/67 inconclusive
                                                                                                            Dabbous HM, 2020
                                                                                                             
                                                                                                            NCT04349241
                                                                                                            RCTfavipiravir standard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                            50/50 inconclusive
                                                                                                              ELACOI (lopinavir/ritonavir), 2020
                                                                                                               
                                                                                                              NCT04252885
                                                                                                              RCTlopinavir/ritonavirstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                              21/7 inconclusive
                                                                                                                ELACOI (Lopinavir/ritonavir), 2020
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                NCT04252885
                                                                                                                RCTumifenovir (arbidol)lopinavir/ritonavirCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                35/34 inconclusive
                                                                                                                • inconclusive 84 % increase in PCR-negative conversion (14-day) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                • inconclusive 8 % increase in PCR-negative conversion (7-day) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                EMPACTA, 2020
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                NCT04372186
                                                                                                                RCTtocilizumab placeboCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                259/129 conclusif
                                                                                                                • demonstrated 44 % decrease in death or ventilation (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                • suggested 45 % decrease in clinical deterioration with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                Fu, 2020
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                ChiCTR2000030262
                                                                                                                RCTinterferon / TFF2standard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                40/40 no results
                                                                                                                  GS-US-540-5773 (Goldman), 2020
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                  NCT04292899
                                                                                                                  RCTremdesivirremdesivirCOVID-19 mild to moderateNA
                                                                                                                  200/197 suggested
                                                                                                                  • suggested 53 % increase in clinical improvement (14-day)
                                                                                                                  GS-US-540-5774, 10 days, 2020
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                  NCT04292730
                                                                                                                  RCTremdesivirstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                  197/200 suggested
                                                                                                                  • suggested 58 % increase in clinical improvement (14-day) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                  • suggested 88 % increase in clinical improvement (28-day) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                  The primary endpoint was not met, no odds ratio is reported because the proportional odds assumption was not met
                                                                                                                  GS-US-540-5774, 5 days, 2020
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                  NCT04292730
                                                                                                                  RCTremdesivirstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                  199/200 conclusif
                                                                                                                  • demonstrated 65 % increase in clinical improvement (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                  • suggested 53 % increase in clinical improvement (7-day) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                  HC-nCoV (Shanghai), 2020
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                  NCT04261517
                                                                                                                  RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                  15/15 inconclusive
                                                                                                                    Hung et al., 2020
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                    NCT04276688
                                                                                                                    RCTlopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin and interferon beta-1blopinavir/ritonavirCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                    86/41 conclusif
                                                                                                                    • demonstrated 3.4-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion,PCR-negative conversion (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                    • suggested 2.9-fold increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (time to event analysis only) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
                                                                                                                    Idelsis, 2020
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                    RPCEC00000307
                                                                                                                    RCTinterferoninterferonCOVID-19 mild to moderatehigh
                                                                                                                    30/33 conclusif
                                                                                                                    • demonstrated 2.3-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion (time to event analysis only) (PE) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
                                                                                                                    Khamis, 2020 RCTfavipiravir standard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
                                                                                                                    44/45 inconclusive