Study explorer (study characteristics and results) method abbreviations

display ongoing studies
Study studied treatmentcontrol treatmentpatientsrisk of biassample sizes Results

COVID 19 all comers meta-analysis

Cao B, 2020
 
ChiCTR2000029308
RCTlopinavir/ritonavirstandard of careCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
99/100 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Chang Chen et al., 2020
 
ChiCTR200030254
RCTfavipiravir umifenovir (arbidol)COVID 19 all comerssome concern
120/120 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
ELACOI (arbidol), 2020
 
NCT04252885
RCTumifenovir (arbidol)standard of careCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
16/7 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
ELACOI (lopinavir/ritonavir), 2020
 
NCT04252885
RCTlopinavir/ritonavirstandard of careCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
21/7 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
NIH NIAID ACTT-1, 2020
 
NCT04280705
RCTremdesevirplaceboCOVID 19 all comerssome concern
538/521 suggested
  • suggested 32 % increase in clinical improvement (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
sarilumab phase 2 high dose unpublished
 
NCT04315298
RCTsarilumab high dose (400mg)placeboCOVID 19 all comershigh
145/77 suggested
    no demonstrated benefit a
  • suggested 61 % decrease in death or ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
  • suggested 73 % decrease in ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
there were negative trends for most outcomes in the “severe” group, while there were positive trends for all outcomes in the “critical” group
sarimulab phase 2 low dose unpublished
 
NCT04315298
RCTsarilumab low dose (200mg)placeboCOVID 19 all comershigh
136/77 suggested
    no demonstrated benefit a
  • suggested 72 % decrease in ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
there were negative trends for most outcomes in the “severe” group, while there were positive trends for all outcomes in the “critical” group
Li, 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comerscritical
-/- inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Magagnoli (HC AZ), 2020OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
113/158 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Meng, 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comerscritical
17/25 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Yang, 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
43/83 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Zhang, 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
188/940 suggested
  • suggested 63 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Bean, 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID 19 all comersserious
37/168 suggested
  • suggested 71 % decrease in death or transfer to ICU but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Yan et al., 2020OBScorticosteroidscontrolCOVID 19 all comerscritical
-/- safety concern
  • statistically significant 6.6-fold increase in clinical worsening but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Yan et al., 2020OBSangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)controlCOVID 19 all comerscritical
-/- inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Yan et al., 2020OBSangiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)controlCOVID 19 all comerscritical
-/- inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Gautret et al., 2020NRahydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 all comersserious
20/16 suggested
  • suggested 15.3-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion (PE) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
a viral load reduction/disappearance is claimed but the numerous methological limits preclude any strong conclusion

COVID 19 hospitalized meta-analysis

Abd-Elsalam, 2020RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
97/97 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
BRACE CORONA, 2020RCTdiscontinuation of ACEI/ARBcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
334/325 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Chen, 2020
 
NCT04384380
RCThydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
21/12 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
ConPlas-19, 2020
 
NCT04345523
RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
38/43 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Gharbharan et al., 2020
 
NCT04342182
RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
43/43 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
GRECCO-19, 2020
 
NCT04326790
RCTcolchicinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
55/50 suggested
  • suggested 89 % decrease in clinical worsening with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
Huang, 2020
 
ChiCTR2000029542
RCThydroxychloroquinelopinavir/ritonavirCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
10/12 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Metcovid, 2020
 
NCT04343729
RCTcorticosteroidsplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
209/207 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
PLACID, 2020
 
CTRI/2020/04/024775
RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
235/229 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
RECOVERY, 2020
 
NCT04381936
RCThydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
1542/3132 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
RECOVERY, 2020RCTlopinavir/ritonavircontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedsome concern
1596/3376 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
the trial Steering Committee concluded that there is no beneficial effect of lopinavir-ritonavir in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and closed randomisation to that treatment arm
Tang, 2020
 
ChiCTR2000029868
RCTchloroquine and derivativesstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedhigh
75/75 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Synairgen SG016 unpublishedRCTSNG001 inhaled interferon betaplaceboCOVID 19 hospitalizedNA
-/- suggested
  • suggested 1.2-fold increase in clinical improvement
  • suggested 79 % decrease in death or ventilation
risk of bias assessment is impossible with the data reported in the press release (alone available documents, the protocol was not registered)
GLUCOCOVID, 2020OBScorticosteroidscontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
34/29 suggested
  • suggested 45 % decrease in clinical worsening but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Abolghasemi, 2020
 
IRCT20200325046860N1
OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
115/74 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Arshad (HCQ AZ), 2020OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
783/409 suggested
  • suggested 71 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Arshad (HCQ), 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
1202/409 suggested
  • suggested 66 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Belgian Collaborative Group on COVID-19, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
4542/3533 suggested
  • suggested 32 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Chen, 2020OBSlopinavir/ritonavircontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
163/121 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Chen, 2020OBSumifenovir (arbidol)controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
163/121 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Chen, 2020OBSoseltamivircontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
163/121 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Chen, 2020OBSchloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
163/121 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Colaneri, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
21/21 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Davido, 2020
 
NCT04453501
OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
52/40 suggested
  • suggested 55 % decrease in death or transfer to ICU but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Fernández Cruz, 2020OBScorticosteroidsstandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
396/67 suggested
  • suggested 66 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Geleris, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
811/565 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
HNF Hospital Tocilizumab multidisciplinary team, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
20/25 suggested
  • suggested 87 % decrease in death or transfer to ICU but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Huang, 2020OBSchloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
197/176 suggested
  • suggested 5.1-fold increase in PCR-negative conversion (14-day) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Joyner, 2020
 
NCT04338360
OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
515/561 suggested
  • suggested 23 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Lagier, 2020OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
3119/618 suggested
  • suggested 70 % decrease in clinical worsening but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
  • suggested 51 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
  • suggested 62 % decrease in hospitalization but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Magagnoli (HC), 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
97/158 safety concern
  • safety concern with statistically significant 1.6-fold increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only)
Malgorzata, 2020OBSanti-inflammatory therapiescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
130/66 suggested
  • suggested 59 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Martinez-Sanz, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
260/969 suggested
  • suggested 66 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Mather, 2020OBSproton pump inhibitorscontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
83/795 suggested
  • suggested 63 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
  • suggested 53 % decrease in death or ventilation but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
Novales, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
123/43 suggested
  • suggested 93 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
Paccoud, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
38/46 inconclusive
    no demonstrated benefit a
Paranjpe, 2020OBSanticoagulantcontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
786/1987 no results
    the primary result seems inconclusive (no p value given, but in-hospital mortality for AC was 22.5% with a median survival of 21 days, compared to 22.8% and median survival of 14 days in control group)
    Rosenberg, 2020OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
    -/- safety concern
      no demonstrated benefit a
    • safety concern with statistically significant 1.1-fold increase in cardiac arrest
    • statistically significant 1.2-fold increase in arrhythmia but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Rosenberg, 2020OBSazithromycincontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Rosenberg, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
    -/- safety concern
      no demonstrated benefit a
    • safety concern with 91 % increase in cardiac arrest (not statistically significant)
    Sbidian (HCQ alone), 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
    623/3792 safety concern
    • statistically significant 25 % increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Sbidian (HCQ plus AZI), 2020OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
    227/3792 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Singh, 2020OBShydroxychloroquine plus macrolidescontrolCOVID 19 hospitalizedcritical
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Tsai, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID 19 hospitalizedserious
    66/66 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    COVID 19 outpatients meta-analysis

    BCN PEP-CoV-2 reserach group, 2020RCThydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 outpatientssome concern
    137/157 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    PEP-COV 13 research group, 2020
     
    NCT04304053
    CRThydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID 19 outpatientssome concern
    142/165 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    COVID-19 meta-analysis

    Lee (confirmed COVID-19), 2020OBSproton pump inhibitorscontrolCOVID-19critical
    267/267 safety concern
    • statistically significant 79 % increase in clinical worsening,death or transfer to ICU but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Luxenburger, 2020OBSproton pump inhibitorscontrolCOVID-19critical
    62/90 safety concern
    • statistically significant 1.7-fold increase in clinical worsening but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    • statistically significant 3.1-fold increase in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    • statistically significant 1.4-fold increase in superinfection but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Wu, 2020OBScorticosteroidscontrolCOVID-19serious
    -/- suggested
    • suggested 62 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias

    COVID-19 mild to moderate meta-analysis

    Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I (Cavalcanti), 2020
     
    NCT04322123
    RCThydroxychloroquine plus macrolidesstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
    217/227 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I (Cavalcanti), 2020
     
    NCT04322123
    RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
    221/227 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    GS-US-540-5774, 10 days, 2020
     
    NCT04292730
    RCTremdesevirstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
    197/200 suggested
      no demonstrated benefit a
    • suggested 58 % increase in clinical improvement (14-day) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    • suggested 88 % increase in clinical improvement (28-day) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    the primary endpoint was not meet, no odds ratio is reported because theproportional odds assumption was not met
    GS-US-540-5774, 5 days, 2020
     
    NCT04292730
    RCTremdesevirstandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
    199/200 conclusif
    • demonstrated 65 % increase in clinical improvement (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    • suggested 53 % increase in clinical improvement (7-day) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    HC-nCoV (Shanghai), 2020
     
    NCT04261517
    RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatesome concern
    15/15 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Zhaowei Chen, 2020
     
    ChiCTR2000029559
    RCThydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID-19 mild to moderatehigh
    31/31 suggested
    • suggested 2.4-fold increase in clinical improvement but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    • suggested 2.4-fold increase in radiologic improvement (7-day) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Capra, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 mild to moderatecritical
    62/23 suggested
    • suggested 96 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Min, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID-19 mild to moderateNA
    20/20 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    COVID-19 prophylaxis meta-analysis

    Boulware, 2020
     
    NCT04308668
    RCThydroxychloroquineplaceboCOVID-19 prophylaxislow
    414/407 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    • inconclusive 19 % decrease in new illness compatible with Covid-19 (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
    BCN PEP-COV reserach group (Mitja), 2020
     
    NCT04304053
    CRThydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID-19 prophylaxissome concern
    1116/1198 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Almario, 2020OBSproton pump inhibitorscontrolCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    14855/36583 safety concern
    • statistically significant 1.2-fold increase in new illness compatible with Covid-19 but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Khera (inpatients), 2020OBSangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Khera (inpatients), 2020OBSangiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Khera (outpatients), 2020OBSangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Khera (outpatients), 2020OBSangiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Lee (COVID-19 onset), 2020OBSproton pump inhibitorscontrolCOVID-19 prophylaxiscritical
    13873/13873 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Morales, 2020OBSangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisNA
    363785/248915 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Morales, 2020OBSangiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisNA
    363785/248915 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Morales, 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID-19 prophylaxisNA
    363785/248915 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Reynolds (prophylaxis), 2020OBSRenin-angiotensin-system-acting agentscontrolCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    EPI-PHARE unpublishedOBSchloroquine and derivativescontrolCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Mancia, 2020OBSangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    6272/30759 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Mancia, 2020OBSangiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)controlCOVID-19 prophylaxisserious
    6272/30759 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    COVID-19 severe or critically meta-analysis

    CAP-China (Wang et al.), 2020
     
    NCT04257656
    RCTremdesevirplaceboCOVID-19 severe or criticallylow
    158/79 inconclusive
    • inconclusive 23 % increase in clinical improvement,clinical improvement (time to event analysis only) (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
    CAPE-COVID, 2020
     
    NCT02517489
    RCTcorticosteroidsplaceboCOVID-19 severe or criticallylow
    76/73 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    • inconclusive 29 % decrease in death or ventilation (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
    COALITION II (Furtado), 2020
     
    NCT04321278
    RCTazithromycincontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    214/183 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    CODEX (Tomazini), 2020
     
    NCT04327401
    RCTcorticosteroidscontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    151/148 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    COVACTA (Rosas), 2020
     
    NCT04320615
    RCTtocilizumab placeboCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    294/144 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Ming Zhong, 2020
     
    ChiCTR2000029851
    RCTalpha lipoic acidstandard of careCOVID-19 severe or criticallyhigh
    8/9 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    RECOVERY dexamethasone, 2020
     
    NCT04381936
    RCTdexamethasonestandard of careCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    2104/4321 conclusif
    • demonstrated 17 % decrease in deaths (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    in an exploratory subgroup analysis there was no benefit among patients who did not require oxygen (1.22 [0.86 to 1.75]; p=0.14)
    REMAP-CAP, fixed 7-day course, 2020
     
    NCT02735707
    RCTcorticosteroidscontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    143/108 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    REMAP-CAP, shock-dependent course, 2020
     
    NCT02735707
    RCTcorticosteroidscontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    152/108 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Li, 2015
     
    ChiCTR2000029757
    RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallysome concern
    52/51 inconclusive
    • inconclusive 40 % increase in clinical improvement (PE) with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    Ana-COVID (Huet), 2020OBSanakinracontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallyserious
    52/44 suggested
    • suggested 78 % decrease in clinical worsening,death or transfer to ICU but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Andrew, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 severe or criticallyNA
    198/413 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    ARI-RAF (Della-Torre), 2020OBSsarilumabcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallyNA
    28/28 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Biran, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 severe or criticallyserious
    210/420 suggested
    • suggested 36 % decrease in deaths but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Duan, 2020OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    10/10 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Hegerova, 2020OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    20/20 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Jianfeng, 2020OBScorticosteroidsstandard of careCOVID-19 severe or criticallyserious
    -/- safety concern
    • statistically significant 1.8-fold increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    • statistically significant 2.0-fold increase in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Mahevas, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinestandard of careCOVID-19 severe or criticallyserious
    84/97 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Mathilde, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    30/29 suggested
    • suggested 75 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Raef, 2020OBScorticosteroidsstandard of careCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    -/- suggested
    • suggested 55 % decrease in deaths but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Rasheed, 2020OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    21/28 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Rojas-Marte, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    96/97 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Sean, 2020OBSconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    39/156 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Somers, 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    78/76 safety concern
    • suggested 45 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    • statistically significant 2.3-fold increase in superinfection but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Tang, 2020OBSanticoagulantcontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallyserious
    99/350 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    TOCI-RAF Study Group (Campochiaro), 2020OBStocilizumab controlCOVID-19 severe or criticallyNA
    32/33 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Yu, 2020OBShydroxychloroquinecontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallycritical
    48/520 suggested
    • suggested 68 % decrease in deaths,deaths (time to event analysis only) but with a very low degree of certainty due to critical risk of bias
    Lu, 2020OBScorticosteroidscontrolCOVID-19 severe or criticallyserious
    151/93 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    infections other than COVID-19 meta-analysis

    INSIGHT FLU-IVIG (Davey), 2019
     
    NCT02287467
    RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentplaceboinfections other than COVID-19some concern
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    IRC005 Study Team, 2019
     
    NCT02572817
    RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentplaceboinfections other than COVID-19low
    92/48 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    IRC002 Study Team, 2017
     
    NCT01052480
    RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentcontrolinfections other than COVID-19some concern
    42/45 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Peymani, 2016RCTchloroquine and derivativesplaceboinfections other than COVID-19high
    6/4 suggested
    • suggested 76.0-fold increase in clinical improvement but with a low degree of certainty due to high risk of bias
    Borges, 2013RCTchloroquine and derivativesplaceboinfections other than COVID-19some concern
    63/66 suggested
    • suggested 29.8-fold increase in clinical improvement with a moderate degree of certainty due to some concern in risk of bias
    Hung, 2013
     
    NCT01617317
    RCTconvalescent plasma treatmentplaceboinfections other than COVID-19some concern
    17/18 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Paton, 2011
     
    NCT01078779
    RCTchloroquine and derivativesplaceboinfections other than COVID-19low
    757/749 inconclusive
    • inconclusive 54 % increase in Influenza-like infection (PE) with a high degree of certainty due to low risk of bias
    Tricou, 2010RCTchloroquine and derivativesplaceboinfections other than COVID-19low
    278/276 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    preventing respiratory virus transmission meta-analysis

    Barasheed, 2014RCTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- suggested
    • suggested 59 % decrease in Influenza-like infection
    Cowling, 2009
     
    NCT00425893
    RCTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    MacIntyre, 2009RCTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Alfelali, 2019CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    MacIntyre, 2016CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    123/122 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Aiello, 2012
     
    NCT00490633
    CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    1623/1642 suggested
    • suggested 75 % decrease in Influenza-like infection
    Suess, 2012
     
    NCT00833885
    CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    26/30 suggested
      no demonstrated benefit a
    • suggested 68 % decrease in respiratory viral infections
    MacIntyre, 2011CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Simmerman, 2011CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Aiello, 2010
     
    NCT00490633
    CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Canini, 2010
     
    NCT00774774
    CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    52/53 inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a
    Larson, 2010CRTface maskcontrolpreventing respiratory virus transmissionNA
    -/- inconclusive
      no demonstrated benefit a

    PE: primary endpoint; (a): to be demonstrated a result must be statistically significant on a primary endpoint (with multiplicity adjustment if necessary);